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Climate Policy

Climate Change & Clean Energy

IORA’s dynamic climate team helps national and subnational governments design evidence-based policies and implementation frameworks to effectively address climate change. Our philosophy for policy development is based on conducting thorough baseline assessments, identifying implementation gaps and developing pragmatic and dynamic activity and resource mobilization frameworks. Our monitoring and evaluation systems are designed to ensure frequent feedback and course correction for effective policy implementation. We have successfully created GHG inventory systems and designed crowdsourcing information collection frameworks for monitoring and evaluation of climate mitigation and adaptation actions.

On the technical front, our team members carry out climate and vegetation modelling for planning and development in agriculture and forestry &land use (AFOLU) sectors. We work closely with community members on to design, test and distribute clean energy devices. We have also utilized household and bio-waste for energy generation as an alternative to fuel wood.


Updating Maharashtra SAPCC

IORA updated the Maharashtra State Action Plan for Climate Change (SAPCC) after collation of district wise data across all 36 districts. Climate trends and associated impacts were assessed and each district was ranked as per a “vulnerability index”. 14 priority interventions were identified to implement the climate policy based on costs and benefits focusing on climate change adaptation. Interventions include support of livelihood diversification schemes, promotion of solar water pumps and organic farming, mandatory treatment and re-use of wastewater and development of a climate change cell among others. A monitoring and evaluation (M&E) framework was prepared for implementation of interventions, collection of periodic feedback and enable corrections.

Location Maharashtra
Duration Aug. 2016-Dec. 2017
Client Name Oxford Policy Management Pvt. Ltd, DFID
Review and Update of West Bengal SAPCC

IORA assessed the West Bengal State Action Plan for Climate Change (SAPCC) in context to the national developments in climate science and policy. The update includes new climate projections, budget for action plan till 2020, and critical assessment of previous interventions. A subsequent M&E framework was prepared for their implementation.

Location West Bengal
Duration Sep. 2017-Dec. 2017
Client Name Department of Environment, Government of West Bengal
Support to Telangana State Government in Preparation of Project Proposal from Prioritized Activities in SAPCC

IORA developed a concept note and project proposal for soil and water management in arid areas of Telangana. The project involved assessment of scope, cost and sustainability of prioritized interventions suggested by state department in the State Action Plan for Climate Change (SAPCC) .

Location Telangana
Duration Oct. 2015-Nov. 2015
Client Name GIZ India
Communication Package for Mizoram SAPCC

IORA prepared a communication package of the Mizoram State Action Plan for Climate Change (SAPCC) for policy makers and general public. Package included an executive summary of the SAPCC and brochures for knowledge dissemination. An abstract for SAPCC and Monitoring &Evaluation framework for implementation was also developed by IORA.

Location Mizoram
Duration Aug. 2016-Sep.2016
Client Name GIZ India
Support the State of Haryana in preparation of project proposal for accessing National Adaptation Fund for Climate Change (NAFCC)

With assistance from GIZ India, IORA is supporting the Haryana Forest Department in preparation of project proposal for accessing climate finance from the National Adaptation Fund for Climate Change (NAFCC). The proposed project aims to enhance the adaptive capacity of urban and peri-urban landscapes in NCR through conservation & restoration of critical rainwater catchments & water bodies in the Gurugram Aravalli landscape of Haryana. The project focuses on water resource augmentation, bioremediation and enhancing urban ecosystem services. The overarching goals are integration of national and state efforts for adaptation and mitigation. IORA has conducted field surveys, meetings with government officials and prioritized interventions and assessed their feasibility.

Location Haryana
Duration Sep. 2018-Oct. 2018
Client Name GIZ India
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Support the State of Gujarat in preparation of project proposal for accessing National Adaptation Fund for Climate Change (NAFCC)

IORA in partnership with GIZ India, developed a project concept note and a detailed Project Design Document (PDD) for the State Government of Gujarat for “Climate Change Adaptation for Natural Resource (NR) dependent communities for Kachchh district, Gujarat” project. The proposal was to develop climate resilience through livelihood security and ecosystem restoration. The PDD was used to access funds from NAFCC. The project was implemented by Forest Department in Gujarat in partnership with GEER Foundation and Gujarat Institute on Desert Ecology (GUIDE).

Location Gujarat
Duration Jan. 2017-Mar. 2017
Client Name GIZ India
Drafting of Water Policy for State of Mizoram and Sikkim, India

IORA is facilitating the state governments for drafting of the Mizoram and Sikkim Water Policy 2018. The policies are being drafted after review of existing state policies and The National Water Policy 2012. Two workshops in each state were conducted to harmonize views amongst the states and for alignment of the policy to state specific concerns. The envisaged policy will incorporate socioeconomic considerations like inclusive participation of women.

Location Mizoram
Duration May 2018-Dec. 2018
Client Name GIZ India
Developing Practitioners’ Guidebook and providing Technical Support for Capacity Development Programme on Climate Change Adaptation

IORA is supporting the states of Himachal Pradesh, Punjab, Telangana and Tamil Nadu to impart training to state and district level officials for integrating climate change adaptation into the development programmes. IORA has been assigned to undertake 12 state level workshops and develop a guidebook for Master Trainers Programme which would subsequently be used to train state and district level officials, policy makers and community members at the implementation stage. A state wise practitioners’ guidebooks customized for each of Climate Change Adaptation-Rural Adaptation in India is being designed which includes : i) target state specific strategy, methodology and mode for delivering trainings ii) Inventory of background documents (concept notes, agenda, case studies etc.) for each training programme.

Location Himachal Pradesh, Punjab, Telangana, Tamil Nadu
Duration Apr. 2018-March 2019 Ongoing
Client Name GIZ India
Developing Innovative Concepts on Adaptation (NAFCC)

IORA carried out a scoping study for MoEFCC and GIZ, India to identify mitigation options under the NAMAs in the Indian forestry sector. This study explored the mitigation actions identified in various policies, programs and projects of the forestry sector across India which could potentially be developed as domestic or supported NAMAs. After intensive and continuous stakeholder consultations and analysis, four high impact potential NAMA options were identified. The options have undergone rigorous tests based on criteria and indicators developed for forestry NAMAs in India. The options are under evaluation by MoEFCC currently, out of which one option shall be taken up as India’s first NAMA in the forestry sector.

Duration Jun 2018-Nov. 2018
Client Name GIZ India
Developing a National Adaptation Plan for India

IORA has developed the National Adaptation Plan of India which enlists specific adaptation strategies for Water resources, Agriculture, Forest and Biodiversity, Himalayan and mountainous ecosystems, Coastal Zones, Energy and Disaster risk reduction. Plan was developed post assessment of vulnerabilities and impacts. Financial resources for budget requirements were identified.

Duration Jan. 2015 – Mar. 2015
Client Name Oxford Policy Management Ltd.,MoEFCC, Government of India
Feasibility Study on MoEFCC Advisory Service for Line Ministries to Mainstream Climate Change Adaptation for Climate Resilient Infrastructure

The overall objective of this project is to conduct a feasibility study on options provided on structure and content for setting up and maintaining the advisory services of the MoEFCC, including the envisaged network-building and knowledge management for climate change adaptation. This will help knowledge transfer between MoEFCC and line Ministries Climate Change adaptation into infrastructure measures and climate resilient projects. The envisaged advisory service will collate interventions which the MoEFCC can give line Ministries to climate proof their adaptation activities.
IORA in consultation with GIZ and relevant technical institutions is designing an institutional framework for the flow of advisory service for climate proofing infrastructure to line ministries and state level departments. The expected outcomes of this initiative include compilation of list of identified line ministries and their focus areas and entry points for further dissemination of advisory services. Further, additional framework options will be identified and illustrated options for the advisory services will be prepared.

Duration Oct. 2018 – Jan. 2019
Client Name GIZ India
Development of Disaster Preparedness and Response Plans at Panchayat Samiti Level and strengthen response capacity in 30 Panchayat Samiti of Chamba, Kangra, Kinnaur and Shimla districts of Himachal Pradesh

IORA was hired by UNDP India to develop disaster preparedness and response plans at Panchayat Samiti level and strengthen response capacity in 30 Panchayat Samitis in Himachal Pradesh. Post stakeholder consultation, IORA prepared individual plans for each village along with training manuals and SOPs outlining roles for members of the panchayats. IORA also carried out Disaster Response Mock drills at each of the Panchayat Samitis to assess the effectiveness of disaster preparedness and response plans.

Location Himachal Pradesh
Duration Dec. 2017-May 2018
Client Name UNDP India
Development of GHG Inventory and MRV System for Sikkim

IORA is supporting the Government of Sikkim towards the development and implementation of a first-of-its-kind State level GHG Inventory and Climate MRV System. The Sikkim Climate Inventory and Monitoring System (SCIMS) is constituted of a “GHG Inventory System” providing emission and sequestration trends across the economy, and a “Climate MRV System” for tracking ongoing actions in Sikkim contributing to emission reduction/sequestration. The SCIMS would offer the state an avenue for evidence based green climate governance, enabling it to remain a carbon neutral state. Reports were created in line with global best practices and will be used for the Biennial Reporting to the UNFCCC and for monitoring related to India’s Intended Nationally Determined Contributions as and when needed.

Location Sikkim
Duration Aug. 2018-Contd.
Client Name Shakti Sustainable Energy Foundation
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System Assessment and Design of a National Meta Registry to Support Cost-Effective GHG Reduction in India

India aims to reduce its GHG emissions by 33-35% by 2030 relative to 2005 levels in its Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) under the Paris Agreement. To achieve this goal, India needs ambitious and aggressive domestic policies that facilitate a shift to low carbon development pathways. Market-based mechanisms (MBMs) may play a key role in achieving this goal. To support the scale up of existing MBMs and to introduce new ones, India has been granted funds from the World Bank’s Partnership for Market Readiness (PMR) Initiative. A key component of this proposal was the development of a National Meta-Registry to support cost-effective GHG Emission Reduction in India. IORA has been engaged to develop this “Meta-Registry” that will serve as a data management system to keep track of and facilitate the transaction, transfer, and Measurement, Reporting and Verification (MRV) of all current and proposed MBMs. The registry was envisioned to be the core infrastructure required to form the foundation of capturing the country’s actions on climate change mitigation. Additionally, the Meta-Registry will host and link infrastructure of the existing and upcoming MBM registries thereby serving as transaction registry.
IORA is conducting stakeholder engagement and workshops and performing a needs assessment for the Meta-Registry including analysing its functionality, operations, required regulations and data management needs. Additionally, IORA will define the registry’s functional and technical specifications and provide a Meta-Registry Needs Assessment Report, Meta-Registry Technical Specifications Report and a Meta-Registry Functional Specifications Report.

Duration April 2018 – June 2019
Client Name IHS Markit Research, The World Bank
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Greenhouse Gas Inventory for TNC and Biennial update reports II and III under the “Preparation of Third National Communication (TNC) and other new information to UNFCC”

IORA is supporting MoEFCC, Government of India to develop a GHG inventory for the Aviation, Marine and Railways sectors for reporting to India’s BURII, BURIII and NATCOM III. IORA has submitted a report of the sector specific GHG emission trends from 2000-2015 and additionally undertaken QA/QC measures using relevant IPCC Guidelines and IPCC Good Practices Guide (2000, 2003).

Duration July 2016-Dec. 2018
Client Name MoEFCC, GoI, GEF via UNDP India
Sustainable Action for Climate Resilient Development in Assam: Towards Carbon Neutral Majuli

IORA has conceptualized and designed the carbon neutrality roadmap for “Majuli – India’s first Carbon neutral district by 2020”. 19 interventions have been identified and budgeted (~1200 Cr over a period of 3 years) for emission reduction and sequestration. Interventions include micro and mini solar grids and roof top solar, solar water pumping, replacement of fuel wood by LPG and efficient cook stoves, non-motorised transportation and electric vehicles, creation of a Majuli climate fund through transport cess on passenger tickets and vehicles crossing Bramhaputra and entering Majuli, direct seeded rice, alternative wetting and drying, conversion to organic agriculture, systematic collection of waste, disaggregation and composting, large scale plantation for sequestering residual emissions. A web and android based carbon registry application was developed. Report submitted to Assam Biodiversity Board is under review for publication

Location Assam
Duration Nov. 2017-Oct. 2018
Client Name Assam Projects on Forest and Biodiversity Conservation Society (APFBC)
Assessing community climate risk in Majuli, Assam

Majuli in Assam is a river island lying within Brahmaputra and is highly prone to floods and riverbank erosion. IORA assessed the trends of floods and erosion in Majuli, climate change impacts on these hazards and ascertained escalated hazard risks on communities through Focus Group Discussions across 64 villages. IORA designed climate resilient adaptation actions with budgets and identified possible funding sources.

Location Assam
Duration 2016-Oct. 2017
Client Name Government of Assam, GoI and CCIP Programme of DFID
Development of Decentralized Renewable Energy System

IORA was engaged by Development Alternatives, to provide consulting support to develop corporate and government engagement strategies, project due diligence tools and project contracting procedures for pilot projects in the Smart Power for Environmentally Sound Economic Development (SPEED) Project. The project aimed to create a positive impact on the lives of rural communities in India through the delivery of more affordable, reliable and clean energy services.

Duration Oct 2011 – March 2013
Client Name The Rockefeller Foundation
NAMA Feasibility Study in Building & Transport

IORA worked with Korea Carbon Finance (KCF) to evaluate and design the first ever Monitoring Reporting Verification (MRV) framework for Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMA) in India, in the transportation and building sectors which have been grossly under-represented in the existing CDM regime. IORA assessed the viability of the designed systems in line with existing institutional frameworks for data gathering in the country and proposed a C-NAMA which included CDM requirements, lessons for implementation and a gap analysis.

Duration Sep. 2012-Mar. 2013
Client Name Korea Energy Management Corporation (KEMCO), Korea
First Pilot - NAMA’s in India for the Renewable Purchase Obligation (RPO) Scheme

IORA has designed one of the first pilot Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMAs) in India for the Renewable Purchase Obligation (RPO) scheme, in partnership with Korea Carbon Finance (KCF) and Korea Energy Management Corporation (KEMCO). IORA engaged extensively with the Central Electricity Regulatory Commission (CERC) and India Energy Exchange (IEX) to design this NAMA. The findings of this study were published in a report titled “NAMA Crediting – From its concept to MRV options” by KEMCO during the Conference of Parties (COP) – 19, 2013 meeting in Warsaw.

Duration April 2013-Nov. 2013
Client Name Korea Energy Management Corporation (KEMCO), Korea
Developing an Energy Plan and Energy Action Plan for the state of Assam

IORA in association with ICF Policy Analysis is supporting the Government of Assam to set a clear vision for energy and develop an action plan to integrate the state’s energy vision with energy goals of other departments. IORA will assist to build technical capacity to use modelling tools and analytics while taking policy decisions that impact energy domain. The overarching goal is to enable energy planning a recurring activity within the state.

Duration July 2018 – March 2019 (ongoing)
Client Name ICF Strategic Consulting, GIZ India
Smokeless Biomass Briquette Production Technology among identified 30 farmers and sensitizing another 300 farmers through demonstrated effect

IORA in collaboration with National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development (NABARD) implemented the initiative ‘Smokeless Biomass Briquetting’ in Sikkim. This intervention was a part of the USAID sponsored Partnership for Land Use (Forest-PLUS) Programme. The key objective of the pilot project was to reduce fuelwood consumption leading to conservation and enhancement of Sikkim’s forest ecosystems that support agriculture and livelihoods. This initiative promoted a new technology that converts biomass waste into a clean fuel called “Biomass Briquette” or “Bio-briquette”. It is an alternative clean fuel that reduces the extraction and consumption of fuelwood as a key source of energy in Sikkim, particularly in rural areas, and simultaneously meets their energy needs for household-level cooking and heating. It also provides a solution to agricultural waste and invasive species, which can be used as biomass inputs. The technology is locally made and cost effective.
In the initial phase, 15 units of the Bio-briquettes were provided through NABARD funding to Women SHGs across South and East districts of Sikkim. In addition, more than 600 community members were trained to use these moulds and 30 master trainers were created in order to ensure sustainability of the initiative. Based on the baseline assessment and the monitoring survey, 1650 units of bio-briquettes were reported to have been produced across beneficiary groups in a short duration of 3 months. The total emission reduction is estimated to be 927.34 tonnes of CO2 per year, calculated as per UNFCCC methodology. Going forward, IORA is collaborating with Sikkim State Co-operative Supply and Marketing Federation Ltd. (SIMFED) to develop market linkages for bio-briquettes as an “Organic Clean Fuel”.

Location Sikkim
Duration Nov. 2016-Jan. 2017
Client Name National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development (NABARD), Sikkim under USAID Forest-PLUS Program
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India Organic Waste Management Programme (IOWMP)

Lack of energy access to India’s poor is a crucial development challenge facing the country. Traditional biomass (mainly fuel wood) remains the main energy source for cooking in rural areas, and accounts for 75% of total rural energy demand. One third of households rely on kerosene for lighting, which provides poor quality light and poses health challenges. As of 2016, urban India generated about 60 million tonnes of household waste, 40% of which is organic. Domestic waste is a biomass reserve that can be potentially harnessed for energy generation. Additionally, the problem of irresponsible management leading to disease, bad odour and GHG emissions from decaying waste will be alleviated to a great extent.

IORA has formulated India’s first successful household waste management project in India, the India Organic Waste Management Project (IOWMP) to promote household organic waste management through installation of biogas plants at household, community and institutional levels in India. IOWMP’s value chain ensures timely delivery, training on usage, rapid installation, maintenance and world class monitoring in line with the prestigious Gold Standard. In partnership with the award winning technology partner, Biotech Renewable Energy, IORA has distributed over 20,000 plants across India with a nearly 100% implementation track record over three years. Though the program is not restricted to any specific technology provider, the first VPA was one through BIOTECH. The program has led to partnerships with TATA Chemicals, Kalyani Group, Government Departments (e.g. Department of Science & Technology, Government of Telangana and Andhra Pradesh, Municipalities etc.) and several NGOs.

Additional details can be accessed at

Location Multiple states of India
Duration 2012 – 2028
Client Name BIOTECH