Climate Policy

Climate Policy

IORA helps national and subnational governments design evidence-based policies and implementation frameworks to effectively address climate change. Our theory of change for policy development is based on conducting thorough baseline assessments, identifying implementation gaps and developing pragmatic and dynamic activity and resource mobilization frameworks. Our monitoring and evaluation systems are designed to ensure frequent feedback and course correction for effective policy implementation.

Our Climate Policy services include:
  • Creation of GHG inventory systems
  • Creation of GHG emission reduction monitoring, reporting, and verification systems
  • Design of crowdsourcing information collection frameworks for monitoring and evaluation of climate mitigation and adaptation actions
  • Climate change mitigation policy and plan development in the agriculture, forestry &land use (AFOLU) and distributed clean energy sectors
  • Development of National and State level climate change adaptation plans


NAMA Feasibility Study in Building & Transport

IORA worked with Korea Carbon Finance (KCF) to evaluate and design the first ever MRV framework for NAMAs in India, in the transportation and building sectors. The transportation and building sectors are the key sources of GHG emissions in India. This study assessed the viability of the designed systems in line with existing institutional frameworks for data gathering in the country. IORA and KCF presented these findings to the Government of Korea and the Government of India for due consideration and further developments.

Location New Delhi
Duration 2012 – 2013
Client Name Korea Carbon Finance
First Pilot - NAMA’s in India for the Renewable Purchase Obligation (RPO) Scheme

IORA designed one of the first pilot NAMAs in India for the Renewable Purchase Obligation (RPO) scheme, in partnership with Korea Carbon Finance (KCF) and Korea Energy Management Corporation (KEMCO). IORA engaged extensively with the Central Electricity Regulatory Commission (CERC) and India Energy Exchange (IEX) to design this NAMA. The findings of this study were published in a report titled “NAMA Crediting – From its concept to MRV options” by KEMCO during the Conference of Parties (COP) – 19 meeting in Warsaw.

Location New Delhi
Duration 2013 – 2013
Client Name Korea Energy Management Corporation (KEMCO)
Comprehensive Assessment of GHG Emission Trends due to Energy Consumption from Railways, Aviation and Navigation Sectors in India

IORA is supporting the Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change (MoEFCC) to update and estimate the GHG emission trends in India due to the energy consumption of the Aviation, Railways and water-borne Navigation sectors. This study is being conducted for the second Biennial Update Report (BUR 2). It will also assess GHG emission trends for NATCOM 3. The expected outcome of the initiative includes the development of a comprehensive, transparent and accurate Activity Database (AD), Emission Factors (EF) and GHG inventory for the Aviation, Railways and water-borne Navigation sectors.

Location India
Duration 2016 – 2017
Client Name NATCOM, MoEFCC, GoI
India First Biennial Update Report to UNFCCC

India’s first Biennial Update Report (BUR 1) to UNFCCC, an update on the most recently submitted National Communication (NATCOM),included five major components – (I) National Circumstances, (II) National Greenhouse Gas Inventory, (III) Mitigation Actions, (IV) Constraints, Gaps and related Financial, Technological and Capacity Building needs and support received, and (V) Domestic Monitoring, Reporting and Verification (MRV) arrangements.

The preparation of BUR 1 involved synthesizing the work from 26 studies carried out by 17 expert institutions involving over 50 scientists. IORA was one of the participating organizations.

Location India
Duration 2015
Client Name MoEFCC, GoI
National Adaptation Plan

IORA, under the aegis of DFID’s Climate Change Innovation Program, which is being implemented in India by OPML, is supporting the Government of India (GoI) to develop its National Climate Change Adaptation Plan. The plan is envisaged to enable GoI to integrate adaptation in planning, thereby ensuring water, food and economic security to its population in a changing climate scenario.

Location India
Duration 2015 – 2016
Client Name Oxford Policy Management Ltd. (OPML)
Developing National GHG Inventory for Ethiopia

IORA is developing a detailed national-level GHG inventory system for the Government of Ethiopia. This system will help Ethiopia to prepare its NATCOM submissions and monitor the GHG emissions and sequestration within the country.

Location Ethiopia
Duration 2015 – 2016
Client Name Global Green Growth Institute and the Government of Ethiopia
Daman and Diu Climate Change Action Plan

Developed state climate action plan with objectives of adaptation and mitigation to climate change in Daman and Diu.

Location India
Duration 2012
Client Name NR International
Dadar Nagar Haveli Climate Change Action Plan

Developed state climate action plan with objectives of adaptation and mitigation to climate change in Dadar Nagar Haveli.

Location India
Duration 2012
Client Name NR International
Scoping Study of NAMAs in Forestry Sector in India

IORA carried out a scoping study for MoEFCC and GIZ, India to identify mitigation options under the NAMAs in the Indian forestry sector. This study explored the mitigation actions identified in various policies, programs and projects of the forestry sector across India which could potentially be developed as domestic or supported NAMAs. After intensive and continuous stakeholder consultations and analysis, four high impact potential NAMA options were identified. The options have undergone rigorous tests based on criteria and indicators developed for forestry NAMAs in India. The options are under evaluation by MoEFCC currently, out of which one option shall be taken up as India’s first NAMA in the forestry sector.

Location India
Duration 2014 – 2015
Client Name GIZ & MoEFCC, GoI
Development of a NAMA Concept for Forestry in India

IORA, in partnership with UNIQUE Forestry and Land Use GmbH is developing the design of a NAMA for the forestry sector in India as part of a bilateral initiative of GIZ, India and MoEFCC. The work involves identification of NAMA options, elaboration of the institutional and policy set-up around the identified NAMA option, calculation of the baselines and mitigation potentials, qualification and quantification of co-benefits, creation of a capacity development strategy, assessment of required resources for NAMA implementation and designing financing solutions with all involved stakeholders. In addition, potential international funding opportunities for the forestry NAMA will also be identified in line with the Paris Agreement. A participatory and collaborative approach will be employed to develop the designs of the various components of this NAMA along with regular consultations and result validations with relevant stakeholders.

Location India
Duration 2015 – 2017
Client Name GIZ & MoEFCC, GoI
High Conservation Value Forests: An Instrument for Effective Forest Fiscal Federalism in India: Fourteenth Finance Commission

The study titled “High Conservation Value Forests: An Instrument for Effective” was undertaken in partnership with the Indian Institute of Forest Management (IIFM) to promote the case of conservation finance for India’s forests.

IORA developed a new set of criteria for the 14th Finance Commission of India to identify High Conservation Value Forests. The Finance Commission is using these criteria to allocate central funds focused on incentivizing states to preserve their forests.

Location Multiple States in India
Duration 2013 – 2014
Client Name Indian Institute of Forest Management (IIFM) and the Fourteenth Finance Commission, GOI
Development of REDD+ Reference Policy Document

IORA supported the Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change (MoEFCC), Government of India to develop a REDD+ Reference policy document for India. The document describes the issues and concepts related to definitions as well as approaches to construct a national forest reference level based on forest inventories and remotely sensed information on the extent of forest area in accordance with the national circumstances. IORA contributed to designing the institutional arrangement for REDD+ in India and assigned roles and responsibilities to different government and other organizations, including MoEFCC, Forest Survey of India (FSI), Indian Council of Forestry Research and Education (ICFRE), State Forest Department, Joint Forest Management (JFM) Committees, Panchayats and Gram Sabhas, etc. IORA also designed governance and safeguard mechanisms to ensure that REDD+ implementation supports the rights of local communities and indigenous people (tribals) along with conserving the biodiversity in natural forests.

Location India
Duration 2013 – 2014
Client Name MoEFCC, Government of India (GoI)
India’s First REDD+ Manual for Practitioners

IORA, in association with IIFM and MoEFCC, designed a REDD+ Manual which is intended to serve as a quick-access guide for forestry practitioners and end users, bring considerable clarity on REDD+ concepts and issues, and initiate actions for REDD+ readiness with a focus on India.

Location India
Duration 2012
Client Name Indian Institute of Forest Management (IIFM) & MoEFCC, GoI
Support the State of Gujarat in preparation of project proposal for accessing National Adaptation Fund for Climate Change (NAFCC)

IORA assisting GIZ to develop a Detailed Project Report (DPR) for State Government of Gujarat for the project titled “‘Climate Change Adaptation for Natural Resource (NR) dependent communities for Kachchh district, Gujarat’, to access funds from the National Adaptation Fund for Climate Change (NAFCC). NAFCC has been established to meet the cost of adaptation to climate change for the State and Union Territories of India that are particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of climate change. The project is being implemented by GEER Foundation, Forest Department and Gujarat Institute on Desert Ecology (GUIDE) as a bilateral cooperation of MoEFCC, GOI and GIZ aimed towards integrating climate adaptation and mitigation measures into the national and state development planning.

The key tasks involve developing a Detailed Project Report through consultations with stakeholders and officials of partner organizations to identify the scope of the interventions, their viability and sustainability and implementation plan.

Location Gujarat, India
Duration 2017
Client Name GIZ India
Developing National Adaptation Plan (NAPs) for Guyana

Under the Japan-Caribbean Climate Change Partnership (J-CCCP), IORA is providing technical assistance to the relevant government counterparts in Guyana related to the review and update of the Climate Resilience Strategy and Action Plan (CRSAP) to address gaps and to ensure alignment with the endorsed framework for National Adaptation Plan (NAP).

IORA will undertake all activities related to the review and update of prioritized adaptation actions and the national adaptation roadmap outlined in the CRSAP. These activities will advance the integration and implementation of identified actions and inform the amendment of this national document to ensure that it meets all the requirements for a comprehensive NAP. These actions will be guided by the Least Developed Countries Expert Group (LEG) technical guidelines for NAP development published by the UNFCCC

Location Guyana
Duration 2016 – 2017
Client Name UNDP Barbados
Developing M&E projects for prioritised SAPCC projects for implementation in Maharashtra

The Government of Maharashtra has identified 14 projects covering water resources, agriculture, forests and biodiversity, habitats, energy and disaster risk management that need to be implemented on a priority basis. IORA is supporting the development of 1st and M&E framework and in guidance of the same has developed individual M&E frameworks for each of the 14 projects. The M&E frameworks track the objectives, expected  climate change outputs and outcomes of these projects, links them to existing projects and programs, develops indicators for climate change adaptation and suggests monitoring and evaluation parameters for each that cover institutional mechanism,  the projects capability in addressing  CC adaptation amongst others vis a vis the metrics  for monitoring progress, effectiveness, gaps and lessons of the NAP process.

Location Maharashtra, India
Duration 2016 – 2017
Client Name CCIP/DFID
Pilot Implementation of India’s Forestry NAMA in Assam under BMUB IKI Project ‘Development and Management of NAMA in India’

IORA has been engaged in the selection and development of the NAMA concept for the forestry sector in India. We followed a rigorous process, involving research and extensive stakeholder consultations, to develop the feasibility study and a full-fledged NAMA concept including MRV structure, capacity development strategy and financing approach.

This NAMA pilot programme to be carried out under this assignment is based on the stakeholder consultations and feedback received specifically from the Assam DoEF and NAMA Facility. The objective of this pilot is to demonstrate the practicability of the NAMA concept developed and its readiness to be scaled up/ replicated. Effective implementation of the NAMA concept can potentially unlock significant private investments and international climate finance given its multiple benefits (as outlined above). Especially international finance could help address the barriers which have impeded the success of past initiatives on sustainable fuelwood management by government and private sector. The pilot programme will ensure deployment and sustained adoption of fuelwood saving technologies in 5 tea estates and 5 forest villages in Assam.

This pilot will conduct a rigorous exercise in identifying the appropriate technologies for the chosen clusters using an excel based Decision Support System (DSS) based on IORA’s iFoReST model. It will also secure financing to deploy fuelwood saving technologies in at least 50 households in each tea estate and the forest village in the chosen cluster. These could include one or multiple sources from public (e.g. government subsidy programmes) and private sectors (e.g. CSR and personal financing by households).

Location Assam, India
Duration 2017 – Ongoing
Client Name GIZ India
Review and Update of West Bengal SAPCC

In partnership with Department of Environment, Government of West Bengal, IORA has been reviewing, updating and abridging the West Bengal State Action Plan on Climate Change in view of the latest development in climate science and other related policy developments in India. The key steps involve rapid review of existing SAPCC; identification of gaps; stakeholders’ consultations; and bridging the gaps identified followed by summarization of West Bengal SAPCC.

Location West Bengal, India
Duration 2017 – Ongoing
Client Name Department of Environment, Government of West Bengal
Climate Smart Agriculture-Development of Policy and Guidelines

IORA in partnership with International Food Policy and Research Institute (IFPRI) has been developing policy and guidelines for Climate Smart Agriculture.

Location India
Duration 2017 – Ongoing
Client Name International Food Policy and Research Institute (IFPRI)
Developing GHG Inventory and MRV System for Sikkim

IORA is partnering with the Government of Sikkim in establishing a first of its kind State level GHG Management System which will include designing the institutional architecture, operational protocols and software for:

– A “GHG Inventory System” that can prepare GHG emission inventories at the state level annually.

– A “Climate MRV System” for the annual tracking of actions that lead to climate mitigation in state and assessing their impact in terms of GHG mitigation and sustainable development co-benefits.

The key intended outcomes of this initiative are:

– Preparation of the first ever GHG Emissions Baseline for Sikkim for the time series 2010 to 2015, and if possible from 2005 onwards, to ascertain its position as a carbon neutral/carbon negative state.

– Establishment of the first of its kind state level GHG Management System which can help the state monitor its GHG emissions and emission reductions due to its green initiatives over time to support planning of a roadmap for carbon neutrality, and beyond towards becoming carbon negative.

– Creation of reports that are in line with global best practices and can be reported under various upcoming initiatives such as, among others, the Biennial Reporting to the UNFCCC or monitoring related to India’s NDCs as and when needed.

Location Sikkim, India
Duration 2017 – Ongoing
Client Name Shakti Sustainable Energy Foundation